2010 EXTERIOR

ASHRAE 2010 EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES

Lighting Zone Description
0 Undeveloped areas within national parks, state parks, forest land, rural areas, and other undeveloped areas as defined by the authority having jurisdiction
1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas.
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas.
3 All other areas.
4 High activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local jurisdiction.

Individual Lighting Power Allowances for Building Exteriors

  Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Base Site Allowance (base allowance may be used in tradable or non-tradable surfaces)
  No Base Site in Zone 0 500 W 600 W 750 W 1300 W
Tradable Surfaces
(LPDs for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs, and outdoor sales areas may be traded.)
Uncovered parking areas
Parking areas and drives No allowance 0.04 W/ft² 0.06 W/ft² 0.10 W/ft² 0.13 W/ft²
Building grounds
Walkways less than 10ft wide No allowance 0.7 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot 0.8 W/linear foot 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10ft wide or greater Plaza areas No allowance 0.14 W/ft² 0.14 W/ft² 0.16 W/ft² 0.2 W/ft²
Special feature areas          
Stairways No allowance 0.75 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft²
Pedestrian tunnels No allowance 0.15 W/ft² 0.15 W/ft² 0.2 W/ft² 0.3 W/ft²
Landscaping No allowance 0.04 W/ft² 0.05 W/ft² 0.05 W/ft² 0.05 W/ft²
Building entrances and exits
Main entries No allowance 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width
Other doors No allowance 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width
Entry canopies No allowance 0.25 W/ft² 0.25 W/ft² 0.4 W/ft² 0.4 W/ft²
Sales Canopies
Free standingand attached No allowance 0.6 W/ft² 0.6 W/ft² 0.8 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft²
Outdoor sales
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area" allowance No allowance 0.25 W/ft² 0.25 W/ft² 0.5 W/ft² 0.7 W/ft²
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area" allowance No allowance No allowance 10 W/linear foot 10 W/linear foot 30 W/linear foot
Nontradable Surfaces
(LPD calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific applications and cannot be traded between surfacesor with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.)
Building facades No allowance No allowance 0.1 W/ft² for each illuminated wall or surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.15 W/ft² for each illuminated wall or surface or 3.75 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.2 W/ft² for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositores No allowance 269 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 271 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 272 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities No allowance 0.75 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.75 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.75 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.75 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces")
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency service vehicles No allowance 0.5 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.5 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.5 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces") 0.5 W/ft² uncovereded area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces")
Drive-through windows/doors No allowance 400 W per drive-through 401 W per drive-through 402 W per drive-through 403 W per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances No allowance 800 W per main entry 801 W per main entry 802 W per main entry 803 W per main entry
Roadway/parking entry, trail head, and toilet facility, or other locations approved by the authority having jurisdiction A single luminaire of 60 watts or less may be installed for each roadway/parking entry, trail head, and toilet facility, or other locations approved by the authority having jurisdiction No allowance No allowance No allowance No allowance

ASHRAE 2010 - LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

Building Area Type a LPD (W/ft²)
Automotive facility 0,82
Convention center 1,08
Courthouse 1,05
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0,99
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0,9
Dining: family 0,89
Dormitory 0,61
Exercise center 0,88
Fire station 0,71
Gymnasium 1
Health-care clinic 0,87
Hospital 1,21
Hotel 1
Library 1,18
Manufacturing facility 1,11
Motel 0,88
Motion picture theater 0,83
Multifamily 0,6
Museum 1,06
Office 0,9
Parking garage 0,25
Penitentiary 0,97
Performing arts theater 1,39
Police station 0,96
Post office 0,87
Religious building 1,05
Retail 1,4
School/university 0,99
Sports arena 0,78
Town hall 0,92
Transportation 0,77
Warehouse 0,66
Workshop 1,2

2007 EXTERIOR

ASHRAE 2007 LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

Tradable Surfaces (LPDs for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs, and outdoor sales areas may be traded.) Uncovered parking areas
Parking lots and drives 1.6 W/m²
Building grounds
Walkways less than 3 m wide 3.3 W/linear meter
Walkways 3 m wide or greater 2.2 W/m²
Plaza areas
Special feature areas
Strairs 10.8 W/m²
Building entrances and exits
Main entries 98 W/linear meter of door width
Other doors 66 W/linear meter of door width
Canopies and overhangs
Canopies (free standing and attached and overhangs) 13.5 W/m²
Outdoor sales
Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 5.4 W/m²
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots 66 W/linear meter
in addition to "open area" allowance
Nontradable Surfaces (LPD calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.) Building facades 2.2 W/m² for each illuminated wall or surface or 16.4 W/linear meter for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositories 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 13.5 W/m² of uncovered area (covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces")
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency service vehicles 5.4 W/m² of uncovered area(covered areas are included in the "Canopies and Overhangs" section of "Tradable Surfaces")
Drive-through windows at fast food restaurants 400 W per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances 800 W per main entry

ASHRAE 2007 LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES USING THE BUILDING AREA METHOD

Building Area Type a LPD (W/m²)
Automotive facility 10
Convention center 13
Courthouse 13
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 14
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 15
Dining: family 17
Dormitory 11
Exercise center 11
Gymnasium 12
Health-care clinic 11
Hospital 13
Hotel 11
Library 14
Manufacturing facility 14
Motel 11
Motion picture theater 13
Multifamily 8
Museum 12
Office 11
Parking garage 3
Penitentiary 11
Performing arts theater 17
Police/fire station 11
Post office 12
Religious building 14
Retail 16
School/university 13
Sports arena 12
Town hall 12
Transportation 11
Warehouse 9
Workshop 15

2010 INTERIOR

ASHRAE 2010 LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES USING THE SPACE BY SPACE METHOD

COMMON SPACE TYPES LPD, W/ftm² RCR THRESHOLD
Atrium
First 40 ft in height 0.03 per ft NA
Height above 40 ft 0.02 per ft NA
Audience/Seating Area-Permanent
For Auditorium 0,79 6
For Performing Arts Theatre 2,43 8
For Motion Picture Theatre 1,14 4
Classroom/Lecture/Training 1,24 4
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1,23 6
Corridor/Transition 0,66 Width<8 ft
Dining Area 0,65 4
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining 1,31 4
For Family Dining 0,89 4
Dressing/Fitting Room for Performing Arts Theatre 0,4 6
Electrical/Mechanical 0,95 6
Food Preperation 0,99 6
Laboratory
For Classrooms 1,28 6
For Medical/Industrial/Research 1,81 6
Loby 0,9 4
For Elevator 0,64 6
For Performing Arts Theatre 2 6
For Motion Picture Theatre 0,52 4
Locker Room 0,75 6
Lounge/Recreation 0,73 4
Office
Enclosed 1,11 8
Open Plan 0,98 4
Restrooms 0,98 8
Sales Area 1,68 6
Stairway 0,69 10
Worshop 1,59 6
Automotive
Service/Repair 0,67 4
Bank/Office
Banking Activity Area 1,38 6
Convention Center
Audience Seating 0,82 4
Exhibit Space 1,45 4
Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom 1,72 6
Confinement Cells 1,1 6
Judge's Chambers 1,17 8
Penitentiary Audience Seating 0,43 4
Penitentiary Classroom 1,34 4
Penitentiary Dining 1,07 6
Dormitory
Living Quarters 0,38 8
Fire Stations
Engine Room 0,56 4
Sleeping Quarters 0,25 6
Gymnasium/Fitness Center
Fitness Area 0,72 4
Gymnasium Audience Seating 0,43 6
Playing Area 1,2 4
Hospital
Corridor/Transition 0,89 Width < 8 ft
Emergency 2,26 6
Exam/Treatment 1,66 8
Laundry/Washing 0,66 4
Lounge/Recreation 1,07 6
Medical Supply 1,27 6
Nursery 0,88 6
Nurse's Station 0,87 6
Operating Room 1,89 6
Patient Room 0,62 6
Pharmacy 1,14 6
Physical Therapy 0,91 6
Radiology/Imaging 1,32 6
Recovery 1,15 6
Hotel/Highway Lodging
Hotel Dining 0,82 4
Hotel Guest Rooms 1,11 6
Hotel Lobby 1,06 4
Highway Lodging Dining 0,88 4
Highway Lodging Guest Rooms 0,75 6
Library
Card File and Cataloging 0,72 4
Reading Area 0,93 4
Stacks 1,71 4
Manufacturing
Corridor/Transition 0,41 Width < 8 ft
Detailed Manufacturing 1,29 4
Equipment Room 0,95 6
Extra High Bay (>50ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1,05 4
High Bay (25-50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1,23 4
Low Bay (<25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1,19 4
Museum
General Exhibition 1,05 6
Restoration 1,02 6
Parking Garage
Garage Area 0,19 4
Post Office
Sorting Area 0,94 4
Religious Buildings
Audience Seating 1,53 4
Fellowship Hall 0,64 4
Worship Pulprite, Choir 1,53 4
Retail
Dressing/Fitting Room 0,87 8
Mall Concourse 1,1 4
Sales Area 1,68 6
Sports Arena
Audience Seating 0,43 4
Court Sports Arena-Class 4 0,72 4
Court Sports Arena-Class 3 1,2 4
Court Sports Arena-Class 2 1,92 4
Court Sports Arena-Class 1 3,1 4
Ring Sports Arena 2,68 4
Transportation
Air/Train/Bus-Baggage Area 0,76 4
Airport-Concourse 0,36 4
Audience Seating 0,54 4
Terminal-Ticket Counter 1,08 4
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage 0,95 6
Medium/Bulky Material Storage 0,58 4

2007 INTERIOR

ASHRAE 2007 LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES USING THE SPACE BY SPACE METHOD

COMMON SPACE TYPES LPD, W/ftm²
Office-Enclosed 1.2
Office-Open Plan 1.2
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1.4
Classroom/Lecture/Training 1.5
For Penitentiary 1.4
Lobby 1.4
For Hotel 1.2
For Performing Arts Theatre 3.6
For Motion Picture Theatre 1.2
Audience/Seating Area 1.0
For Gymnasium .4
For Convention Center .8
For Penitentiary .8
For Religious Buildings 1.8
For Sports Arena .4
For Performing Arts Theatre 2.8
For Motion Picture Theatre 1.3
For Transportaion .5
Atrium -First Three Floors .6
Atrium - Each Additional Floor .2
Lounge/Recreation 1.3
For Hospital .9
Dining Area 1.0
For Penitentiary 1.4
For Hotel 1.4
For Motel 1.3
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining 1.5
For Family Dining 2.3
Food Preperation 1.3
Laboratory 1.5
Restrooms 1.0
Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room .6
Corridor/Transition .5
For Hospital 1.1
For Manufacturing Facility .5
Stairs-Active .6
Active Storage .9
For Hospital 1.0
Inactive Storage .3
For Museum .9
Electical/Mechanical 1.6
Gymnasium/Exercise Center
Playing Area 1.5
Exercise Area 1.0
Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom 2.0
Confinement Cells 1.0
Judge's Chambers 1.4
Fire Stations
Engine Room .9
Sleeping Quarters .3
Post Office-Sorting Area 1.3
Convention Center-Exhibit Space/td> 1.4
Library
Card File and Cataloging 1.2
Stacks 1.8
Reading Area 1.3
Hospital
Emergency 2.9
Recovery .9
Nurse's Station 1.1
Exam/Treatment 1.6
Pharmacy 1.3
Patient Room .8
Operating Room 2.4
Nursery .6
Medical Supply 1.5
Physical Therapy 1.0
Radiology .4
Laundry-Washing .6
Automotive-Service Repair .8
Manufacturing
Low Bay (<25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.3
High Bay (>25 ft Flloor to Ceiling Height) 1.8
Detailed Manufacturing 2.3
Equipment Room 1.3
Control Room .5
Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms 1.2
Dormitory-Living Quarters 1.2
Museum
General Exhibition 1.1
Restoration 1.8
Bank/Office-Banking Activity Area 1.6
Worshop 2.0
Sales Area 1.8
Religious Buildings
Worship Pulpit, Choir 2.6
Fellowship Hall 1.0
Retail
Sales Area 1.8
Mall Concourse 1.8
Sports Arena
Ring Sports Arena 2.9
Court Sports Arena 2.5
Indoor Playing Field Arena 1.5
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage 1.5
Medium/Bulky Material Storage 1.0
Parking Garage-Garage Area .2
Transportaion
Airport-Concourse .6
Air/Train/Bus-Baggage Area 1.1
Terminal-Ticket Counter 1.6

IECC

2015 Code Summary

CODE SECTION CODE REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY
C405.2 Lighting
controls
(Mandatory)
Lighting systems shall be provided with controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3, C405.2.4 and C405.2.5.
Exceptions: Lighting controls are not required for the following:
1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that arerequired to be continuously lighted.
2. Interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways.
3. Emergency egress lighting that is normally off.
With few exceptions, lighting controls are now required in all size buildings,
and in all areas of the building. Exceptions: Interior exit stairways, ramps, passageways, security areas required to be continuously lit, emergency egress that is normally off.
C405.2.1
Occupant Sensor
Controls
Occupant sensor controls shall be installed to control lights in the following space types:
Classrooms/lecture/training rooms, Conference / meeting / multipurpose rooms, Copy/print rooms, Lounges, Employee lunch and break rooms, Private offices, Restrooms, Storage rooms, Janitorial closets, Locker rooms, and other spaces 300 square feet or less that are enclosed by floor-to-ceiling height partitions, Warehouses.
Areas required to have occupancy
sensor control have been greatly
expanded.
C405.2.1.1
Occupant sensor
control function.
Occupant sensor controls in spaces other than warehouses specified in Section C405.2.1 shall comply with the following:
· Automatically turn off lights within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the space.
· Be manual on or controlled to automatically turn the lighting on to not more than 50 percent power.
· Shall incorporate a manual control to allow occupants to turn lights off.
With a few exceptions, occupancy
sensor control shall be vacancy, or half occupancy, and must include a manual control to turn lights off. Exceptions: Automatic on permitted to control public corridors, stairways, restrooms, primary entrance and lobbies, and areas where manual on would endanger safety or security of occupants.
C405.2.1.2
Occupant sensor
control function in
warehouses.
In warehouses, the lighting in aisle ways and open areas shall be controlled with occupant sensors that automatically reduce lighting power by not less than 50 percent when the areas are unoccupied. The occupant sensors shall control lighting in each aisle way independently and shall not control lighting beyond the aisle way being controlled by the sensor.
Warehouses are now required to use
occupancy sensors, and may not control more than one aisle. Lights must be able to reduce power by at least 50% when unoccupied.
C405.2.2 Timeswitch
controls
Each area of the building that is not provided with occupant sensor controls shall be provided with time switch controls.
With few exceptions all areas not
covered by occupancy controls will
include time based controls with manual override, 2 hour max override, and controlling not more than 5000 square feet.
C405.2.2.2 Light-reduction
controls
Spaces required to have light-reduction controls shall have a manual control that allows the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by at least 50 percent.
Light reduction may be achieved by
dimming, lamp switching, or fixture
control as long as it is done in a
reasonably uniform illumination pattern.
C405.2.3 Daylight-responsive
controls
Daylight-responsive controls shall be provided to control the electric lights within daylight zones in the following spaces:
• Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of general
lighting within sidelight daylight zones.
• Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of general
lighting within top light daylight zones.
Daylight responsive controls are not required for the following:
• Spaces in health care facilities where patient care is directly provided.
• Dwelling units and sleeping units.
• Lighting that is required to have specific application
control.
• Sidelight daylight zones on the first floor above grade in Group A-2 and Group M occupancies.
With few exceptions, daylight
responsive controls are required in all
spaces with more than 150 watts of
general lighting within their daylight
zones. Daylight zones are now defined
as two feet on either side of window,
and window head height into the space.
(floor to the top of the fenestration)
C405.2.3.1
Daylight-responsive
control
function
Where required, daylight-responsive controls shall be provided within each space for control of lights in that space and shall comply with all of the following:
• Lights in top light daylight shall be controlled
independently of lights in sidelight daylight zones.
• Daylight responsive controls within each space shall be configured so that they can be calibrated from within that space by authorized personnel.
• Calibration mechanisms shall be readily accessible.
• Where located in offices, classrooms, laboratories and library reading rooms, daylight responsive controls shall dim lights continuously from full light output to 15 percent of full light output or lower.
• Daylight responsive controls shall be capable of a
complete shutoff of all controlled lights.
Spaces requiring daylight responsive
controls will require a photo sensor that
can be adjusted from within the space,
can be calibrated from the floor, and in
classrooms and offices must allow for
dimming to at least 15%. In other spaces
the sensor must at a minimum be able
to turn the lights off in response to
daylight.
C405.2.5 Exterior
lighting controls
Lighting for exterior applications other than emergency lighting that is intended to be automatically off during building operation, lighting specifically required to meet health and life safety requirements or decorative gas lighting systems shall:
• Be provided with a control that automatically turns off the lighting as a function of available daylight.
• Where lighting the building façade or landscape, the lighting shall have controls that automatically shut off the lighting as a function of dawn/dusk and a set
opening and closing time.
• Where not covered in Item 2, the lighting shall have controls configured to automatically reduce the connected lighting power by not less than 30 percent from not later than midnight to 6 a.m., from one hour after business closing to one hour before business opening or during any period when activity has not been detected for a time of longer than 15 minutes.
Façade and landscape lighting must have
its own schedule and also incorporate a
photo sensor. All other lighting (with a
few exceptions) must be able to reduce
its connected load by 30% either based
on a schedule or on occupancy.
Exceptions: Lighting for covered vehicle entrances or exits from buildings or parking structures where required for safety, security or eye adaptation.
C406 Additional
efficiency package
options
Buildings shall comply with at least one of the following:
• More efficient HVAC performance.
• Reduced lighting power density
• Enhanced lighting controls
• On-site supply of renewable energy
• Provision of a dedicated outdoor air system for certain HVAC equipment
• High-efficiency service water heating
One must be chosen. Enhanced controls
includes dimming in all fixtures,
individual fixture control, a digital
control system with programmable
sensors, keypads, user control of
overhead lighting in open offices, and
load shedding.

 

2009&2012 - EXTERIOR

EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES

1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas.
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas.
3 All other areas
4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designed by the local land use planning authority

Lighting Zones

Base Site Allowance (base allowance may be used in tradable or non-tradable surfaces) Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
500 W 600 W 750 W 1300 W
Tradable Surfaces (Lighting power densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs, and outdoor sales areas may be traded.) Uncovered Parking Area
Parking areas and drives 0.04 W/ft² 0.06 W/ft² 0.10 W/ft² 0.13 W/ft²
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 10feet wide 0.7 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot 0.8 W/linear foot 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10 feet wide or greater, plaza areas special feature areas 0.14 W/ft² 0.14 W/ft² 0.16 W/ft² 0.2 W/ft²
Stairways 0.75 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft²
Pedestrian tunnels 0.15 W/ft² 0.15 W/ft² 0.2 W/ft² 0.3 W/ft²
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width
Other doors 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width
Entry canopies 0.25 W/ft² 0.25 W/ft² 0.4 W/ft² 0.4 W/ft²
Sales Canopies
Free-standing and attachted 0.6 W/ft² 0.6 W/ft² 0.8 W/ft² 1.0 W/ft²
Outside Sales
Free-standing and attachted 0.25 W/ft² 0.25 W/ft² 0.5 W/ft² 0.7 W/ft²
Street frontage for vehicle sales lot in addition to "open area" allowance No allowance 10 W/linear foot 10 W/linear foot 30 W/linear foot
Nontradable Surfaces (Lighting power density calculations for the following application can be used only for specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.) Building facades No allowance 0.1 W/ft2 for each illumated wall or surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.15 W/ft2 for each illumated wall or surface or 3.75 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.2 W/ft2 for each illumated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositories 267 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 268 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 269 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 0.75 W/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft² of covered and uncovered area
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles 0.5 w/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.5 w/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.5 w/ft² of covered and uncovered area 0.5 w/ft² of covered and uncovered area
Drive-up windows/doors 400 W per drive through 400 W per drive through 400 W per drive through 400 W per drive through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry

2012 - INTERIOR

IECC 2012 INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES

LIGHTING POWER DENSITY

BUILDING AREA TYPE (W/ft²)
Automotive Facility 0,9
Convention Center 1,2
Court House 1,2
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 1,3
Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 1,4
Dining: Family 1,6
Dormitory 1
Exercise Center 1
Fire Station 0,8
Gymnasium 1,1
Heathcare- clinic 1
Hospital 1,2
Hotel 1
Library 1,3
Manufacturing Facility 1,3
Motel 1
Motion Picture Theatre 1,2
Multifamily 0,7
Museum 1,1
Office 0,9
Parking Garage 0,3
Penitentiary 1
Performing Arts Center 1,6
Police Station 1
Post Office 1,1
Religious Building 1,3
Retail 1,4
School/University 1,2
Sports Arena 1,1
Town Hall 1,1
Transportation 1
Warehouse 0,6
Worshop 1,4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD

COMMON SPACE-BY-SPACE TYPES LPD (W/ft²)
Atrium - First 40 feet in height 0.03 per ft. ht.
Atrium - Above 40 feet in height 0.02 per ft. ht.
Audience/Seating Area- Permanent
For Auditorium 0,9
For Performing Arts Theatre 2,6
For Motion Picture Theatre 1,2
Classroom/Lecture/Training 1,3
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1,2
Corridor/Transition 0,7
Dining Area
Bar/Lounge/Leisure Dining 1,4
Family Dining Area 1,4
Dressing/Fitting Room Performing Arts Theatre 1,1
Electrical/Mechanical 1,1
Food Preperation 1,2
Laboratory for Classrooms 1,3
Laboratory for Medical/Industrial/Research 1,8
Lobby 1,1
Lobby for Performing Arts Theatre 3,3
Lobby for Motion Picture Theatre 1
Locker Room 0,8
Lounge Recreation 0,8
Office-Enclosed 1,1
Office-Open Plan 1
Restroom 1
Sales Area 1,6
Stairway 0,7
Storage 0,8
Workshop 1,6
Courthouse/Police Station/Penetentiary
Courtroom 1,9
Confinement Cells 1,1
Judge Chambers 1,3
Penitentiary Audience Seating 0,5
Penitentiary Classroom 1,3
Penitentiary Dining 1,1
Automotive- Service/Repair 0,7
Bank/Office-Banking Activity Area 1,5
Dormitory Living Quarters 1,1
Gymnasium/Fitness Center
Fitness Area 0,9
Gymnasium Audience/Seating 0,4
Playing Area 1,4
Healthcare Clinic/Hospital
Corridors/Transition 1
Exam/Treatment 1,7
Emergency 2,7
Public and Staff Lounge 0,8
Medical Supplies 1,4
Nursery 0,9
Nurse Station 1
Physical Therapy 0,9
Patient Room 0,7
Pharmacy 1,2
Radiology/Imaging 1,3
Operating Room 2,2
Recovery 1,2
Lounge/Recreation 0,8
Laundry-Washing 0,6
Hotel
Dining Area 1,3
Guest Rooms 1,1
Hotel Lobby 2,1
Highway Lodging Dining 1,2
Highway Lodging Guest Rooms 1,1
Library
Stacks 1,7
Card File and Cataloguing 1,1
Reading Area 1,2
Manufacturing
Corridors/Transition 0,4
Detailed Manufacturing 1,3
Equipment Room 1
Extra High Bay (> 50 foot Floor-Ceiling Height) 1,1
High Bay (25-50 foot Floor-Ceiling Height) 1,2
Low Bay (< 25 foor Floor-Ceiling Height) 1,2
Museum
General Exhibition/td> 1
Restoration 1,7
Parking Garage - Garage Area 0,2
Convention Center
Exhibit Space 1,5
Audience/Seating Area 0,9
Fire Stations
Engine Rooms 0,8
Sleeping Quarters 0,3
Post Office
Sorting Area 0,9
Religious Building
Fellowship Hall 0,6
Audience Seating 2,4
Worship Pulpit/Choir 2,4
Retail
Dressing/Fitting Area 0,9
Mall Concourse 1,6
Sales Area 1,6
Sports Arena
Audience Seating 0,4
Court Sports Area-Class 4 0,7
Court Sports Area-Class 3 1,2
Court Sports Area-Class 2 1,9
Court Sports Area-Class 1 3
Ring Sports Area 2,7
Transportation
Air/Train/Bus Baggage Area 1
Airport Concourse 0,6
Terminal-Ticket Counter 1,5
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage 1,4
Medium/Bulky Material 1,6

2009 - INTERIOR

IECC 2009 INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES

LIGHTING POWER DENSITY
BUILDING AREA TYPE (W/ft²)
Automotive Facility 0,9
Convention Center 1,2
Court House 1,2
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 1,3
Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 1,4
Dining: Family 1,6
Dormitory 1
Exercise Center 1
Gymnasium 1,1
Heathcare- clinic 1
Hospital 1,2
Hotel 1
Library 1,3
Manufacturing Facility 1,3
Motel 1
Motion Picture Theatre 1,2
Multifamily 0,7
Museum 1,3
Office 1
Parking Garage 0,3
Penitentiary 1
Performing Arts Center 1,6
Police/Fire Station 1
Post Office 1,1
Religious Building 1,3
Retail 1,5
School/University 1,2
Sports Arena 1,1
Town Hall 1,1
Transportation 1
Warehouse 0,8
Worshop 1,4

Other

IP Rating

Definitions

FIRST #

(DUST/SOLID PARTICULATES)

0 - NO PROTECTION 1 - PROTECT AGAINST SOLID OBJECTS UP TO 50MM
2 - PROTECT AGAINST SOLID OBJECTS UP TO 12MM
3 - PROTECT AGAINST OBJECTS OVER 2.5MM
4 - PROTECT AGAINST OBJECTS OVER 1MM
5 - PROTECT AGAINST DUST
6 - TOTALLY PROTECT AGAINST DUST

SECOND #

(WATER)

0 - NO PROTECTION
1 - PROTECT AGAINST VERTICALLY FALLING DROPS OF WATER
2 - PROTECT AGAINST DIRECT SPRAYS OF WATER UP TO 15 DEGREES FROM THE VERTICAL
3 - PROTECT AGAINST SPRAYS OF WATER UP TO 60 DEGREES FROM THE VERTICAL
4 - PROTECT AGAINST WATER SPLASHES FROM ALL DIRECTIONS
5 - PROTECT AGAINST LOW PRESSURE JETS OF WATER FROM ALL DIRECTIONS
6 - PROTECT AGAINST STRONG JETS OF WATER
7 - PROTECT AGAINST IMMERSION
8 - PROTECT AGAINST COMPLETE CONTINUOUS SUBMERSION IN WATER

UL Environment & Standard Systems

UL DRY RATING

A fixture with a UL Dry Rating may be used in any area, usually indoors, which is not directly exposed to excessive moisture and water.Any fixture with a UL label that is not explicitly rated for wet or damp applications should be considered a UL dry location fixture.

UL DAMP RATING

A fixture with a UL Damp Rating may be used in sheltered outdoor areas that are protected from direct contact with rain, snow, or excessive moisture (such as ocean spray).

UL WET RATING

A fixture with a UL Wet Rating is suitable for outdoor locations that receive direct contact with rain, snow or excessive moisture (such as fog or ocean spray).For safety reasons,none of our reproduction fixtures should be installed directly inside of a shower enclosure.

UL8750 - LED
UL1598 - Luminaires and LED Retrofits
UL1598c - Reflector Kits for Installed Fluorescents
UL153 Portable Luminaires
UL935 - Fluorescent - Lamp Ballasts
UL1310 - Class 2 Power Units
UL1573 - Stand and Studio Luminaries
UL48 - Sign
UL924 Emergency Lighting and Exit Signs
Ul1993 - Self Ballasted Lamps
UL1786 - Nightlights
UL2108 - Low Voltage Systems
UL1574 - Track Lighting Systems
UL676 - Submersible Luminaires

STAGE MATH

The Following is a collection of math formuals that can prove useful to ligting designers and electricians.

POWER:
  • Watts = Volts * Amps
  • Amps = Watts / Volts
  • SINE WAVE (VAC):
  • RMS Volts = 0.707 x Peak Volts
  • RMS Volts = 1.11 x Peak Volts
  • Peak Volts = 1.57 x Average Volts
  • Peak Volts = 1.414 x RMS Volts
  • Average Volts = 0.637 x Peak Volts
  • Average Volts = 0.9 x RMS Volts
DC VOLTAGE DROP OF CONDUCTOR (CABLE) OF L LENGTH
  • V = Voltage Drop
  • I = Current
  • R = Resistance of Conductor per 1000 feet
  • L = Length of Conductor in feet
  • R for 18awg = 6.51
  • 16awg = 4.09
  • 14awg = 2.58
  • 12awg = 1.62
  • 10awg = 1.02
  • 8awg = 0.64
  • V = I * L * (R / 1000) * 1.004
UNIT CONVERSIONS:
  • Inches = millimeters / 25.4
  • millimeters = inches * 25.4
  • feet = meters / 0.3048
  • footcandles = lux / 10.8
  • lux = footcandles * 10.8
  • Centigrade = 0.556 * (Fahrenheit - 32)
  • Fahrenheit = 1.8 * (Centigrade + 32)
  • pounds = kilograms * 2.205
  • kilograms = pounds * 0.454
  • degrees = 180 * radians / PI
  • radians = PI * degrees /180

Pattern projection magnification and required pattern size:

  • A = new pattern size
  • B = old pattern size
  • C = new projection size
  • D = old projection size
  • P = projection magnification
  • A = B * (C / D)
  • P = D / B

For standard AQ61 (or Altman 360Q) ellipsoidals, consider old pattern size to be 3" (size of gate), and old projection size to be the beam spread using the field angle information. Check diameter of gate (shutter plane opening) for other fixtures.

DISTANCES, INTENSITIES, SPREADS, AND ANGLES:

As seen in the drawing:

  • D = throw distance
  • V= vertical height
  • H = horizontal distance
  • C = focus angle off horizontal
  • K = focus angle off vertical
  • F = beam or field angle of fixture
  • X = beam spread (beam oval width)
  • Y = beam oval length
  • mf=beam spread

stage math light diagram

CANDLEPOWER:
  • Candlepower = Footcandle * (D * D)
BEAM ANGLE MULTIPLYING FACTOR (mf):
  • mf = 2 * TAN (F / 2)
  • mf = X / D
BEAM ANGLE (F):
  • F = 2 * ATAN (MF / 2)
  • F = 2 * ATAN(X / (2 * D)
BEAM SPREAD (OVAL WIDTH X IF NOT STRAIGHT ON)
  • X = D * (2 * TAN(F / 2))
  • X = D * mf
VERTICAL HEIGHT (V):
  • V = SQUARE ROOT( (D * D) - (H * H) )
  • V = H * TAN( C )
  • V = D * SIN( C )
  • V = D * COS(K)
  • V = H / TAN(K)
FOCUS ANGLE OFF HORIZONTAL ( C ):
  • C = ATAN(V / H)
  • C = ASIN(V / D)
  • C = 90 - ASIN(H / D)
  • C = 90 - K
FOOTCANDLES:
  • Footcandles = Candlepower / (D * D)
THROW DISTANCE (D):
  • D = X / mf
  • D = SQUARE ROOT( (V * V) + (H * H)
  • D = H / COS( C )
  • D = V / SIN( C )
  • D = H / SIN(K)
  • D = V / COS(K)
  • D = SQUARE ROOT(Candlepower / Footcandles)
BEAM OVAL LENGTH (Y) (WHEN BEAM HITS SURFACE AT ANGLE)
  • Y = V * ( TAN(K + F/2) - TAN(K - F/2) )
HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (H):
  • H = SQUARE ROOT( (D * D) - (V * V) )
  • H = V / TAN( C )
  • H = D * COS( C )
  • H = D * SIN(K)
  • H = V * TAN(K)
FOCUS ANGLE OFF VERTICAL (K):
  • K = ATAN(H / V)
  • K = ASIN(H / D)
  • K = 90 - ASIN(V / D)
  • K = 90 - C

NFPA - 2009

7.8 Illumination of Means of Egress

7.8.1 General

7.8.1.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 7.8 for every building and structure where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. For the purposes of this requirement, exit access shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of this requirement, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, and exit passage ways leading to a public way.

7.8.1.2 Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that the means of egress be available for use, unless otherwise provided in 7.8.1.2.2.

7.8.1.2.1 Artificial lighting shall be employed at such locations and for such periods of time as are necessary to maintain the illumination to the minimum criteria values herein specified.

7.8.1.2.2 Automatic, motion sensor-type lighting switches shall be permitted within the means of egress, provided that the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation, the illumination timers are set for a minimum 15-minute duration, and the motion sensor is activated by any occupant movement in the area served by the lighting units.

7.8.1.3* The floors and other walking surfaces within an exit and within the portions of the exit access and exit discharge designated in 7.8.1.1 shall be illuminated as follows:

  1. During conditions of stair use, the minimum illumination for new stairs shall be at least 10 ft-candle (108 lux), measured at the walking surfaces.
  2. The minimum illumination for floors and walking surfaces, other than new stairs during conditions of stair use, shall be to values of at least 1 ft-candle(10.8 lux), measured at the floor.
  3. In assembly occupancies, the illumination of the floors of exit access shall be at least 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) during periods of performances or projections involving directed light.
  4. * The minimum illumination requirements shall not apply where operations or processes require low lighting levels.

7.8.1.4* Required illumination shall be arranged so that the failure of any single lighting unit does not result in an illumination level of less than 0.2 ft-candle (2.2 lux) in any designated area.

7.8.1.5 The equipment or units installed to meet the requirements of Section 7.10 also shall be permitted to serve the function of illumination of means of egress, provided that all requirements of Section 7.8 for such illumination are met.

7.8.2 Sources of Illumination.

7.8.2.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be from a source considered reliable by the authority having jurisdiction.

7.8.2.2 Battery-operated electric lights and other types of portable lamps or lanterns shall not be used for primary illumination of means of egress. Battery operated electric lights shall be permitted to be used as an emergency source to the extent permitted under Section 7.9.

7.9 Emergency Lighting.

7.9.1 General.

7.9.1.1* Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 7.9 for the following:

  1. Buildings or structures where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42
  2. Underground and limited access structures as addressed in Section 11.7
  3. High-rise buildings as required by other sections of this Code
  4. Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks
  5. Stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, for which the following also apply:
    • The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to include a standby generator that is installed for the smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equipment.
    • The standby generator shall be permitted to be used for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting power supply.
  6. New access-controlled egress doors in accordance with 7.2.1.6.2.

7.9.1.2 For the purposes of 7.9.1.1, exit access shall include only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of 7.9.1.1, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, ramps, aisles, walkways, and escalators leading to a public way.

7.9.1.3 Where maintenance of illumination depends on changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be permitted.

7.9.2 Performance of System.

7.9.2.1* Emergency illumination shall be provided for not less than 1 1/2 hours in the event of failure of normal lighting. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is not less than an average of 1 ftcandle (10.8 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.1 ft-candle (1.1 lux), measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to not less than an average of 0.6 ft candle (6.5 lux) and, at any point, not less than 0.06 ft-candle (.65 lux) at the end of the 1 1/2 hours. A maximum-to minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded.

7.9.2.2 New emergency power systems for emergency lighting shall be at least Type 10, Class 1.5, Level 1, in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

7.9.2.3* The emergency lighting system shall be arranged to provide the required illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting due to any of the following:

  1. Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power supply
  2. Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse
  3. Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities

7.9.2.4 Emergency generators providing power to emergency lighting systems shall be installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems. Stored electrical energy systems, where required in this Code, shall be installed and tested in accordance with NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

7.9.2.5 Unit equipment and battery systems for emergency luminaires shall be listed to UL 924, Standard for Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment.

7.9.2.6* Existing battery-operated emergency lights shall use only reliable types of rechargeable batteries provided with suitable facilities for maintaining them in properly charged condition. Batteries used in such lights or units shall be approved for their intended use and shall comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.

7.9.2.7 The emergency lighting system shall be either continuously in operation or shall be capable of repeated automatic operation without manual intervention.

7.9.3 Periodic Testing of Emergency Lighting Equipment.

7.9.3.1 Required emergency lighting systems shall be tested in accordance with one of the three options offered by 7.9.3.1.1, 7.9.3.1.2, or 7.9.3.1.3.

7.9.3.1.1 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

  1. Functional testing shall be conducted monthly with a minimum of three weeks and a maximum of 5 weeks between tests, for not less than 30 seconds, except as otherwise permitted by 7.9.3.1.1 (2).
  2. * The test interval shall be permitted to be extended beyond 30 days with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction.
  3. Functional testing shall be conducted annually for a minimum of 1? hours if the emergency lighting system is battery powered.
  4. The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.1 (1) and (3).
  5. Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having jurisdiction.

7.9.3.1.2 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

  1. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
  2. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform not less than once every 30 days a test for not less than 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
  3. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a status indicator.
  4. A visual inspection shall be performed at intervals not exceeding 30 days.
  5. Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not less than 1? hours.
  6. Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the 1? hour test.
  7. Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having jurisdiction.

7.9.3.1.3 Testing of required emergency lighting systems shall be permitted to be conducted as follows:

  1. Computer-based, self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency lighting equipment shall be provided.
  2. The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform not less than once every 30 days a test for not less than 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine.
  3. The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically perform annually a test for not less than 1? hours.
  4. The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.3(2) and 7.9.3.1.3(3).
  5. The computer-based system shall be capable of providing a report of the history of tests and failures at all times.

7.10 Marking of Means of Egress.

7.10.1 General.

7.10.1.1 Where Required. Means of egress shall be marked in accordance with Section 7.10 where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 43.

7.10.1.2* Exits. Exits, other than main exterior exit doors that obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be marked by an approved sign that is readily visible from any direction of exit access.

7.10.1.2.2* Horizontal components of the egress path within an exit enclosure shall be marked by approved exit or directional exit signs where the continuation of the egress path is not obvious.

7.10.1.3 Exit Stair Door Tactile Signage. Tactile signage shall be provided to meet the following criteria, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.1.4:

  1. Tactile signage shall be located at each exit door requiring an exit sign.
  2. Tactile signage shall read as follows: EXIT
  3. Tactile signage shall comply with ICC/ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities.

7.10.1.4 Existing Exemption. The requirements of 7.10.1.3 shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occupancy classification does not change.

7.10.1.5 Exit Access.

7.10.1.5.1 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach the exit is not readily apparent to the occupants.

7.10.1.5.2* New sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing distance or 100 ft (30 m), whichever is less, from the nearest sign.

7.10.1.6* Floor Proximity Exit Signs. Where floor proximity exit signs are required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, such signs shall be located near the floor level in addition to those signs required for doors or corridors. The signs shall be illuminated in accordance with 7.10.5. Externally illuminated signs shall be sized in accordance with 7.10.6.1. The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm), but not more than 18 in. (455 mm), above the floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted on the door or adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the sign within 4 in. (100 mm) of the door frame.

7.10.1.7* Floor Proximity Egress Path Marking. Where floor proximity egress path marking is required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, a listed and approved floor proximity egress path marking system that is internally illuminated shall be installed within 18 in. (455 mm) of the floor. The system shall provide a visible delineation of the path of travel along the designated exit access and shall be essentially continuous, except as interrupted by doorways, hallways, corridors, or other such architectural features. The system shall operate continuously or at any time the building fire alarm system is activated. The activation, duration, and continuity of operation of the system shall be accordance with 7.9.2. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the product manufacturing listing.

7.10.1.8* Visibility. Every sign required in Section 7.10 shall be located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it is readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, interior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. No brightly illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes), display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall be permitted.

7.10.1.9 Mounting Location. The bottom of new egress markings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more than 6 ft 8 in. (2030 mm) above the top edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking. Egress markings shall be located at a horizontal distance of not more than the required width of the egress opening, as measured from the edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that marking to the nearest edge of the marking.

7.10.2* Directional Signs.

A sign complying with 7.10.3 with a directional indicator showing the direction of travel shall be placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not apparent.

7.10.3* Sign Legend.

7.10.3.1 Signs required by 7.10.1 and 7.10.2 shall read as follows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording shall be used: EXIT

7.10.3.2* Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, pictograms shall be permitted.

7.10.4* Power Source.

Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs and listed photoluminescent signs in accordance with 7.10.7.2, shall be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance with 7.10.6.3 or 7.10.7 for the required emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1. However, the level of illumination shall be permitted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emergency lighting duration.

7.10.5 Illumination of Signs.

7.10.5.1* General. Every sign required by 7.10.1.2, 7.10.1.5, or 7.10.8.1, other than where operations or processes require low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. Externally and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in both the normal and emergency lighting mode.

7.10.5.2* Continuous Illumination.

7.10.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 7.10.6.3, 7.10.7, and 7.10.8.1 shall be continuously illuminated as required under the provisions of Section 7.8, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.5.2.2.

7.10.5.2.2* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system.

7.10.3.2* Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction, pictograms shall be permitted.

7.10.4* Power Source.

Where emergency lighting facilities are required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than approved self-luminous signs and listed photoluminescent signs in accordance with 7.10.7.2, shall be illuminated by the emergency lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs shall be in accordance with 7.10.6.3 or 7.10.7 for the required emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1. However, the level of illumination shall be permitted to decline to 60 percent at the end of the emergency lighting duration.

7.10.5 Illumination of Signs.

7.10.5.1* General. Every sign required by 7.10.1.2, 7.10.1.5, or 7.10.8.1, other than where operations or processes require low lighting levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. Externally and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in both the normal and emergency lighting mode.

7.10.5.2* Continuous Illumination.

7.10.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 7.10.6.3, 7.10.7, and 7.10.8.1 shall be continuously illuminated as required under the provisions of Section 7.8, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.5.2.2.

7.10.5.2.2* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system.

7.10.6 Externally Illuminated Signs.

7.10.6.1* Size of Signs.

7.10.6.1.1 Externally illuminated signs required by 7.10.1 and 7.10.2, other than approved existing signs, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.6.1.2, shall read EXIT, or shall use other appropriate wording in plainly legible letters sized as follows:

  1. For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 6 in. (150 mm) high, with the principal strokes of letters not less than 3/4 in. (19 mm) wide.
  2. For existing signs, the required wording shall be permitted to be in plainly legible letters not less than 4 in. (100 mm) high.
  3. The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 2 in. (51 mm), except the letter I, and the minimum spacing between letters shall be not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) .
  4. Sign legend elements larger than the minimum established in 7.10.6.1.1(1) through 7.10.6.1.1(3) shall use letter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their height.

7.10.6.1.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.1.1 shall not apply to marking required by 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.6.

7.10.6.2* Size and Location of Directional Indicator.

7.10.6.2.1 Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided in 7.10.6.2.2, shall comply with the following:

  1. The directional indicator shall be located outside of the EXIT legend, not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) from any letter.
  2. The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as shown in Figure 7.10.6.2.1.
  3. The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a directional indicator at a distance of 40 ft (12m).
  4. A directional indicator larger than the minimum established for compliance with 7.10.6.2.1(3) shall be proportionately increased in height, width and stroke.
  5. The directional indicator shall be located at the end of the sign for the direction indicated.

>

FIGURE 7.10.6.2.1 Chevron-Type Indicator.

7.10.6.2.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.2.1 shall not apply to approved existing signs.

7.10.6.3* Level of Illumination. Externally illuminated signs shall be illuminated by not less than 5 ft-candles (54 lux) at the illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less than 0.5.

Light Trespass

Potential sources include street lighting, security lighting, sports, lighting, billboards and signs, and car headlights.

Such unwanted light can potentially by an annoyance, a serious nuisance or even a serious health and safety risk if it adversely affects visibility for other tasks.

Environmental Zones
Zone Description
Zone E1 Areas with intrinsically dark landscapes. Examples are national parks, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or residential areas where inhabitants have expressed a strong desire that all light trespass be strictly limited. (This is the most sensitive zone.)
Zone E2 Areas of low ambient brightness. These may be outer urban and rural residential areas. Roadwas may be lighted to typical residential standards.
Zone E3 Areas of medium ambient brightness. These will generally be urban residential areas. Roadways will normally be lighted to typical traffic route standards.
Zone E4 Areas of high ambient brightness. Normally these are urban areas having both residential and commercial use and experiencing high levels of night time activity.
Luminaire Classification
Type I Closest setback from roadway (or mounted over roadway)
Type II Greater setback than Type I, less than Type III
Type III Greater setback than Type II, less than Type IV
Type IV Greatest setback from roadway
Type V Axially symmetric; produces a circular illuminance pattern
Cutoff Classifications
Full Cutoff: A luminaire light distribution where zero candela intensity occurs at an angle of 90° above nadir, and at all greater angles from nadir.
Cutoff: A luminaire light distribution where the candela per 1000 lamp lumens does not numerically exceed 25 (2.5 percent) at an angle of 90° above nadir, and 100 (10 percent) at a vertical angle of 80° above nadir. These applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire.
Semicutoff: A luminaire light distribution where the candela per 1000 lamp lumens does not numerically exceed 50 (5 percent) at an angle of 90° above nadir, and 200 (20 percent) at a vertical angle of 80° above nadir. This applies to all lateral angles around the luminaire.
Noncutoff: A luminaire light distribution where there is no candela limitation in the zone above maximum candela.
Walkways
Walkways Distant from Roadways and Type B Bikeways Minimum Average Horizontal Illuminance Levels on Pavement* (footcandles) Average Vertical Illuminance Levels for Special Pedestrian Security (footcandles)
Walkways and Bikeways 0,5 0,5
Pedestrain Stairways 0,5 1
Pedestrain Tunnels 2 5,5
*Uniformity ratios should not be greater than 10:1 maximum to minimum
Parking Lots
  Basic 1 Enhanced Security² IESNA Security Lighting Committee
Minimum Horizontal Illuminance³ 0.2 fc 0.5 fc 0.5 fc
Uniformity Ratio Maximum to Minimum6 20:01 15:01 15:01
Minimum Vertical Illuminance7 0.1 fc 0.25 fc 0.5 fc
Building Entries
A Pulic Spaces 30 lux 3 fc
B Simple orientation for short visits 50 lux 5 fc
Facade
Area Description Average Target Illuminance (vertical) (lux/footcandles) From IESNA Lighting Handbook 9th Edition
Bright Surroundings and Light Surfaces 50/5 50/5
Bright Surroundings and Dark Surfaces 100/10 150/15
Dark Surroundings and Light Surfaces 20/2 20/2
Dark Surroundings and Dark Surfaces 50/5 50/5
Architectural Lighting Alliance
Dallas
Shreveport
Lubbock